dating mathematics

Erin Lindsey, 37 years old

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Computer systems use mathematics to fly aircraft, carry out complex financial transactions and calculate the optimal design for racing cars. But mathematics helps solve many other problems: Fascinating mathematical techniques have been developed for these problems and this lecture presents and discusses in simple terms, various non-numerical mathematical algorithms. Professor Tony Mann has taught mathematics and computing at the University of Greenwich for over twenty years. He has always been fascinated by the interface between mathematics and computing, and he began his career writing software for the mathematical modelling of power plants in the electricity supply industry. Since moving into academia he has taught subjects ranging from abstract dating mathematics and the history of mathematics to digital media and human factors in computing. He also seeks to promote his subject to different audiences, and is active in outreach events for school students and the general public.

Mathematicsthe science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation, and its development has dating mathematics an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. Since the 17th century, mathematics has been an indispensable adjunct to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has assumed a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences. In many cultures—under the stimulus of the needs of practical pursuits, such as commerce and agriculture—mathematics has developed far beyond basic counting. This growth has been greatest in societies complex enough to sustain these activities and to provide leisure for contemplation dating mathematics the opportunity to build on the achievements of earlier mathematicians. All mathematical systems for example, Euclidean geometry are combinations of sets of axioms and of theorems that can be logically deduced from the axioms. Inquiries into the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics reduce to questions of whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency.

Even as mathematical developments in the ancient Greek world were beginning to falter during the final centuries BCE, the burgeoning trade empire of China was leading Chinese mathematics to ever greater heights. The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, dating mathematics small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9, which were then places in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system, very similar to the one we use today - indeed it was the first such number system, adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West - and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy.
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The 13th Century Italian Leonardo of Pisa, better known by his nickname Fibonacci, was perhaps the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages. Little is known of his life except that dating mathematics was the son of dating mathematics customs offical and, as a child, he travelled around North Africa with his father, where he learned about Arabic mathematics. On his return to Italy, he helped to disseminate this knowledge throughout Europe, thus setting in motion a rejuvenation in European mathematics, which had lain largely dormant for centuries during the Dark Ages. Despite its obvious advantages, uptake of the system in Europe was slow this was after all during the time of the Crusades against Islam, a time in which anything Arabic was viewed with great suspicionand Arabic numerals were even banned in the city of Florence in on the pretext that they were easier to falsify than Roman numerals. However, common sense eventually prevailed and the new system was adopted throughout Europe by the 15th century, making the Roman system obsolete. The horizontal bar notation for fractions was also first used in this work although following the Arabic practice of placing the fraction to the left of the integer. Fibonacci is best known, though, for his introduction into Europe of a particular number sequence, which has since become known as Fibonacci Numbers or the Fibonacci Sequence. The sequence, which had actually been known to Indian mathematicians since the 6th Century, has many interesting mathematical properties, and many of the implications and relationships of the sequence were not discovered until several centuries after Fibonacci's death. For instance, the sequence regenerates itself in some surprising ways:

Radiocarbon dating also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbona radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libbywho received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon 14 C is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting 14 C combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxidewhich is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis ; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14 C it contains begins to decrease as the 14 C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the dating mathematics of 14 C in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The older a sample is, the less 14 C there is to be detected, and because the half-life of 14 C the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed is about 5, years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by this process date to around 50, years ago, although special preparation methods occasionally permit accurate analysis of older samples.

Philosophy and thinking Religion and belief systems Society and social sciences Technology and applied sciences. This is an index of subjects on Wikipedia. Each entry below is an alphabetical index dating mathematics its respective subject area. For structured lists on these subjects, see Outline of knowledge. For an alphabetical index of all articles on Wikipedia, see A—Z Index. Social science. Purge cache to show recent changes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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